- ① Modify soac so that the code it generates leaves objects in AOS layout in memory and recompile pbrt. (You will need to manually update a few places in the WavefrontPathIntegrator that only access a single field of a structure, as well.) How is performance affected by this change?
- ② pbrt’s SampledWavelengths class stores two Floats for each wavelength: one for the wavelength value and one for its PDF. This class is passed along between almost all kernels. Render a scene on the GPU and work out an estimate of the amount of bandwidth consumed in communicating these values between kernels. (You may need to make some assumptions to do so.) Then, implement an alternative SOA representation for SampledWavelengths that stores only two values: the Float sample used to originally sample the wavelengths and a Boolean value that indicates whether the secondary wavelengths have been terminated. You might use the sign bit to encode the Boolean value, or you might even try a 16-bit encoding, with the sample value quantized to 15 bits and the 16th used to indicate termination. Write code to encode SampledWavelengths to this representation when they are pushed to a queue and to decode this representation back to SampledWavelengths when work is read from the queue via a call to Film::SampleWavelengths() and then possibly a call to SampledWavelengths::TerminateSecondary(). Estimate how much bandwidth your improved representation saves. How is runtime performance affected? Can you draw any conclusions about whether your GPU is memory or bandwidth limited when running these kernels?
- ② The direct lighting code in the EvaluateMaterialsAndBSDFs() kernel may suffer from divergence in the Light::SampleLi() call if the scene has a variety of types of light source. Construct such a scene and then experiment with moving light sampling into a separate kernel, using a work queue to supply work to it and where the light samples are pushed on to a queue for the rest of the direct lighting computation. What is the effect on performance for your test scene? Is performance negatively impacted for scenes with just a single type of light?
- ③ Add support for ray differentials to the WavefrontPathIntegrator, including both generating them for camera rays and computing updated differentials for reflected and refracted rays. (You will likely want to repurpose the code in the implementation of the SurfaceInteraction SpawnRay() method in Section 10.1.3.) After ensuring that texture filtering results match pbrt running on the CPU, measure the performance impact of your changes. How much performance is lost from the bandwidth used in passing ray differentials between kernels? Do any kernels have better performance? If so, can you explain why? Next, implement one of the more space-efficient techniques for representing derivative information with rays that are described by Akenine-Möller et al. (2019). How do performance and filtering quality compare to ray differentials?
- ③ The WavefrontPathIntegrator’s performance can suffer from scenes with very high maximum ray depths when there are few active rays remaining at high depths and, in turn, insufficient parallelism for the GPU to reach its peak capabilities. One approach to address this problem is path regeneration, which was described by Novák et al. (2010). Following this approach, modify pbrt so that each ray traced handles its termination individually when it reaches the maximum depth. Execute a modified camera ray generation kernel each time through the main rendering loop so that additional pixel samples are taken and camera rays are generated until the current RayQueue is filled or there are no more samples to take. Note that you will have to handle Film updates in a different way than the current implementation—for example, via a work queue when rays terminate. You may also have to handle the case of multiple threads updating the same pixel sample. Finally, implement a mechanism for the GPU to notify the CPU when all rays have terminated so that it knows when to stop launching kernels. With all that taken care of, measure pbrt’s performance for a scene with a high maximum ray depth. (Scenes that include volumetric scattering with media with very high albedos are a good choice for this measurement.) How much is performance improved with your approach? How is performance affected for easier scenes with lower maximum depths that do not suffer from this problem?
- ③ In pbrt’s current implementation, the wavefront path tracer is usually slower than the VolPathIntegrator when running on the CPU. Render a few scenes using both approaches and benchmark pbrt’s performance. Are any opportunities to improve the performance of the wavefront approach on the CPU evident? Next, measure how performance changes as you increase or decrease the queue sizes (and consequently, the number of pixel samples that are evaluated in parallel). Performance may be suboptimal with the current value of WavefrontPathIntegrator::maxQueueSize, which leads to queues much larger than can fit in the on-chip caches. However, too small a queue size may offer insufficient parallelism or may lead to too little work being done in each ParallelFor() call, which may also hurt performance. Are there better default queue sizes for the CPU than the ones used currently?
- ③ When the WavefrontPathIntegrator runs on the CPU, there is currently minimal performance benefit from organizing work in queues. However, the queues offer the possibility of making it easier to use SIMD instructions on the CPU: kernels might remove 8 work items at a time, for example, processing them together using the 8 elements of a 256-bit SIMD register. Implement this approach and investigate pbrt’s performance. (You may want to consider using a language such as ispc (Pharr and Mark 2012) to avoid the challenges of manually writing code using SIMD intrinsics.)
- ③ Implement a GPU ray tracer that is based on pbrt’s class implementations from previous chapters but uses the GPU’s ray-tracing API for scheduling rendering work instead of the wavefront-based architecture used in this chapter. (You may want to start by supporting only a subset of the full functionality of the WavefrontPathIntegrator.) Measure the performance of the two implementations and discuss their differences. You may find it illuminating to use a profiler to measure the bandwidth consumed by each implementation. Can you find cases where the wavefront integrator’s performance is limited by available memory bandwidth but yours is not?